All right, I've finally watched the episode. I'll start adding what I've found and stuff people have commented now. Thanks for commenting! Please bear with the changes while I update the post. Please feel free to continue commenting if you find anything else, however please read the post and other comments before commenting to avoid posting the same information. Thanks!
"Fulfilled real life, split apart! Synapse, burst open!" (0:26)
The Japanese line is "Hazero riajuu! Hajikero shinapusu!" (爆ぜろリア充！弾けろシナプス！). This is referencing a line said by Takanashi Rikka (小鳥遊六花) from "Chuunibyou demo Koi ga Shitai!" (中二病でも恋がしたい！), "Regardless of Chuunibyou, I Want to Fall in Love!", a light novel series written by Torako (虎虎) and published in 2011. The series was later adapted into an anime series in 2012. Rikka's line goes, "Hazero riaru! Hajikero shinapusu!" (爆ぜろリアル！弾けろシナプス！), which translates to "Reality, split apart! Synapse, burst open!". In addition, Cthune is wearing an eye patch over her right eye, and she is wearing a yellow contact lens on her right eye. In "Chuunibyou Demo Koi ga Shitai!", Rikka wears an eye patch over her right eye and also wears a yellow contact lens on her right eye. Images for reference:
Furthermore, a magic circle appears over Cthune's right eye.
This is also referencing Rikka. She believes that she has supernatural powers and that her powers are unleashed when she removes her eye patch. In a depiction of what she believes happens when she removes her eye patch, a magic circle appears over her right eye. Image for reference:
On a related note, specifically, Cthune says 「リア充」 (riajuu), which is a term that combines 「リアル」 (riaru), which means "real" or "reality", and 「充実」 (juujitsu), which means "fullness" or "completion". As a whole, 「リア充」 (riajuu) is a slang term that refers to a person who is satisfied with his or her real (offline) life.
"The boy is always my darling" (1:18)
The Japanese line is "Shounen ha itsudatte mai daarin" (少年はいつだってマイダーリン). This is referencing "Urusei Yatsura Istudatte Mai Daarin" (うる星やつら いつだってマイ・ダーリン), "Urusei Yatsura: Always My Darling", an anime movie released in 1991.S1
"If you two are a couple, then don't you two have affectionate nuances communicated by looking each other in the eyes?" (1:30)
The Japanese line is "Koibito doushi dattara, me to me de tsuujiau iroppoi nyuansu toka, aru ja nai?" (恋人同士だったら、目と目で通じ合う色っぽいニュアンスとか、あるじゃない？). This is referencing a line in the lyrics to "MUGO n Iroppoi" (MUGO・ん…色っぽい), "Silently... Affectionate", a song sung by Kudou Shizuka (工藤静香) and released in 1988.S2 The original line goes, "Me to me de tsuuji au, kasuka ni n iroppoi" (目と目で通じ合う かすかに ん 色っぽい), which translates to "Communicating by looking each other in the eyes, faintly affectionate".
"Like you have a shy date with me, or everyone wants to see the future you dreamed of!" (3:37)
The Japanese line is "Watashi to no mojimoji to deeto to ka, yume mita mirai minna mitai to ka!" (私とのもじもじとデートとか、夢見た未来みんな見たいとか！). This is referencing the lyrics to "Futari no Mojipittan" (ふたりのもじぴったん), "A pair of Mojipittan". This song is the theme song of "Kotoba no Pazuru Mojipittan (ことばのパズル もじぴったん), "Word Puzzle Mojipittan", a video game released in 2001. Specifically, Nyaruko's line is referencing two lines from the lyrics to "Futari no Mojipitta" that go as follows:
「ちょっと もじもじと でーと」
"Chotto mojimoji to deeto"
"A bit of a shy date"
「ゆめ みた みらい みな みたい」
"Yume mita mirai mina mitai"
"Everyone wants to see the future you dreamed of"
"Anyway, 1,000 falsehoods, 10,000 lies!" (3:47)
The Japanese line is "Douse sen no itsuwari, man no uso desu!" (どうせ千の偽り、万の嘘です！). This is referencing a line said by Uratarosu in episode 5 of "Kamen Rider Den-O" (仮面ライダー電王), a Japanese TV show about a masked super hero that aired from 2007 to 2008.S2 His line goes, "Kotoba no ura ni ha hari senbon. Sen no itsuwari, man no uso" (言葉の裏には針千本。千の偽り、万の嘘), which translates to "Behind each word are 1,000 hooks. Behind 1,000 falsehoods, 10,000 lies".
The title of this episode is "Enjite Miru" (エンジテミル), which roughly translates to "Try to Act". This is referencing "Inshite Miru" (インシテミル), "Try to be Immersed", a mystery novel written by Yonezawa Honobu (米澤穂信) and published in 2007.S1 The origin of the title of this novel is the term 「淫する」 (insuru), which in context means "to be immersed in". The meaning of the title is "Try to be immersed in the mystery".
"As long as there's love, it doesn't matter right?" (5:09)
The Japanese line is "Ai sae areba kankei nai yo ne" (愛さえあれば関係ないよね). This is referencing "Onii-chan da kedo ai sae areba kankei nai yo ne" (お兄ちゃんだけど愛さえあれば関係ないよねっ), a light novel series written by Suzuki Daisuke (鈴木大輔) and published from 2010 and is currently ongoing. The title translates to "He's my older brother but, as long as there's love that doesn't matter, right?". On a related note, Mahiro's voice actor, Kitamura Eri (喜多村英梨), also voices Nikaidou Arashi (二階堂嵐), one of the main characters in the anime adaptation of "Onii-chan da kedo ai sae areba kankei nai yo ne".
"I kill that illusion!" (5:12)
The Japanese line is "Sonna gensou ha, atashi ga buchikorosu!" (そんな幻想は私がぶち殺す！). This is referencing the catch phrase of Kamijou Touma from "To Aru Majutsu no Indekkusu" (とある魔術の禁書目録), "A Certain Magical Index", a light novel series written by Kamachi Kazuma (鎌池和馬) and published from 2004 and is currently ongoing. His line, with variations, goes, "Sono gensou wo buchikorosu!" (その幻想をぶち殺す！), which has the same meaning as above. In addition, Cthune thrusts her right hand in front of her. This is also referencing Touma, who's right hand has the ability to negate supernatural phenomena and abilities, and Touma activates this ability through direct contact.
"If only I had a notebook that could kill the person whose name I write in it." (5:58)
This is referencing "DEATH NOTE" (デスノート), a manga series written by Ooba Tsugumi (大場つぐみ) and published from 2003 to 2006. In the series, there is a notebook called the Death Note that causes the person whose name is written in it to die.
"Dislike?! In English, mine!" (7:14)
The Japanese line is "Kirai?! Eigo de iu to main!" (嫌い？！英語で言うとマイン！). The term 「嫌い」 (kirai) means "dislike" or "hate". This term has the same pronunciation as 「機雷」 (kirai), which means "mine" and refers to the explosive weapon. The mines that appear in the background are based on the Desler Mines (デスラー機雷) that appear in episode 11 of "Uchuu Senkan Yamato" (宇宙戦艦ヤマト), "Space Battleship Yamato", an anime series that aired from 1974 to 1975.S1 In the above scene, there are many green mines.
There is also a single blue mine.
In episode 11 of "Uchuu Senkan Yamato", there is a minefield filled with many Desler Mines and a single control mine. The single blue mine is based on the Desler Mines.
The many green mines are based on the single control mine.
Cthuko and Mahiro go into a jewelry store called "FLAME STYLE". This is referencing the "Flame Style" (フレイムスタイル) form of Kamen Rider Wizard in "Kamen Rider Wizard" (仮面ライダーウィザード), a Japanese TV show about a masked super hero that aired from 2012 and is currently ongoing.
"Then the Ring of Eibon is a good choice." (8:14)
There are two references here:
* The symbol on the ring is based on the Symbol of Eibon, a symbol from the Cthulhu Mythos. Image from the 5th edition rule book for the "Call of Cthulhu" RPG for reference:
In addition, Eibon is the name of a wizard in the Cthulhu Mythos, and the character was created by Clark Ashton Smith, an American author who wrote many Cthulhu Mythos stories.
* The appearance of the Ring of Eibon is based on the Wizard Rings used by Kamen Rider Wizard in "Kamen Rider Wizard" (仮面ライダーウィザード). Image for reference:
"Incidentally, if you're not wearing the ring when you end a chapter, your sanity points will drop." (8:23)
There are two references here:
* This is referencing "VALKYRIE PROFILE" (ヴァルキリープロファイル), a video game released in 1999.S2 In the game, the player has a parameter called Seal Rating, and there is an item called "Niiberungen no Yubiwa" (ニーベルンゲンの指環), "Nibelungen Ring". If this ring is not equiped when the player ends a chapter, the player's Seal Rating will drop.
* The term "SAN chi" (SAN値), "sanity points", is referencing sanity points, abbreviated as SAN, a parameter that characters have in the "Call of Cthulhu" role playing game. If a character's sanity points drop to zero, the character is permanently insane and typically can no longer be played.
"Do you have anything like a ring that whittles away health when equipped just by walking?" (8:41)
This is referencing the Ring of Death from "Wizardry", a video game series that first began release in 1981. When equipped, the Ring of Death drains health points just from walking.S2
This is the book that the man is holding up.
On the cover of the book is a symbol based on the Symbol of Eibon. In addition, the title of the book is "Eibon no Sho" (エイボンの書), which translates to "Book of Eibon". This is referencing the Book of Eibon, a magical grimoire created by Clark Ashton Smith.
This is the book that Cthuko is holding.
The title of the book is "Gensou Sekai Neemingu Jiten" (幻想世界ネーミング事典), which translates to "Fantasy World Naming Encyclopedia". The title and appearance of this book are referencing those of "Gensou Sekai Juuikkakokugo Neemingu Jiten" (幻想世界11カ国語ネーミング辞典), "Fantasy World 11 Languages Naming Dictionary", a book released in 2011 that contains 13409 words in 11 different languages to be used for creating names.S2 Image for reference:
Source of image: http://www.telescope-ltd.jp/works.htm
The artist who illustrated the art for the cover of the book, Tsukasa Kiryu (輝竜司), also uploaded the original illustration on pixiv.
Source of image (pixiv requires an account to view full size): http://www.pixiv.net/member_illust.php?mode=medium&illust_id=19182375
"Well then, if we insert Mahiro into Kuuko, Kuroko..." (9:09)
When Cthuko says "Kuroko", immediately Shanta-kun shouts out. This is referencing Shirai Kuroko (白井黒子) from "To Aru Majutsu no Indekkusu" (とある魔術の禁書目録), "A Certain Magical Index", a light novel series written by Kamachi Kazuma (鎌池和馬) and published from 2004 and is currently ongoing. In the anime adaptation of "To Aru Majutsu no Index", Kuroko is voiced by Arai Satomi (新井里美), who also voices Shanta-kun.
"If it's a boy, we'll make him play basketball. If it's a girl, we'll enroll her in Academy City." (9:19)
This is a follow up to the name "Kuroko". There are two references here:
* Basketball is referencing "Kuroko no Basuke" (黒子のバスケ), "Kuroko's Basketball", a manga series written by Fujimaki Tadatoshi (藤巻忠俊) and published from 2009 and is currently ongoing.S1 The main character of the series is named Kuroko Tetsuya (黒子テツヤ).
* "Gakuen Toshi" (学園都市), "Academy City", is the primary setting of "To Aru Majutsu no Indekkusu" (とある魔術の禁書目録). Academy City is a city containing several schools, one of which is Tokiwadai Middle School (常盤台中学). One of the main characters in the series, Shirai Kuroko (白井黒子), attends this school.
This is the sign for the restaurant.
The name of the restaurant is "La Toison D'or", which is French for "The Golden Fleece". In Japanese the name translates to "Kinyoumou" (金羊毛). This is referencing "Mikan Shoujo Ravukurafuto" (未完少女ラヴクラフト), "Unfinished Girl Lovecraft", a light novel written by Kuro Shirou (黒史郎) and published in 2013. One of the main characters, Kanna Serio (カンナ・セリオ), works at a place called 「金羊毛」, which is indicated in the text to be read as "Towazon Dooru" (トワゾン・ドール), "Toison D'or".S3 Image for reference:
Source of image: http://www.amazon.co.jp/dp/4569679447
Mahiro and Cthuko's poses are referencing those of Rose and Jack respectively from a scene in "Titanic", an American movie released in 1997. In addition, Cthuko says, "Doudai, Mahiroozu?" (どうだい、まひローズ？), which translates to "How is it, Mahi-Rose?". This is another reference to Rose, whose pose Mahiro is mimicking.
"Who are you going to kiss? Is it me?! Or is it me?! (11:18)
The Japanese line is "Mahiro-san ha dare to kisu suru n desu ka? Watashi desu ka?! Sore tomo watashi desu ka?!" (真尋さんは誰とキスするんですか？わたしですか？！それともわたしですか？！). This is referencing a line in the lyrics to "Toraianguraa" (トライアングラー), "Triangular", a song sung by Sakamoto Maaya (坂本真綾) and released in 2008.S1 "Triangular" is the first opening theme song for "Macross Frontier" (マクロスF), an anime that aired in 2008. The line goes, "Kimi ha dare to kisu wo suru, watashi sore tomo ano ko" (君は誰とキスをする わたしそれともあの娘), which translates to "Who are you going to kiss? Is it me? Or is it that other girl?". In addition, there is an alternate version of this song called "Toraianguraa (fight on stage)" (トライアングラー(fight on stage)), "Triangular (fight on stage)". This alternate version is sung by May'n and Nakajima Megumi (中島愛) and was released in 2008 on a soundtrack titled "Macross Frontier O.S.T.2 Nyan Tora" (マクロスF O.S.T.2 娘トラ☆). In this version, the above mentioned line is changed to "Kimi ha dare to kisu wo suru, watashi sore tomo watashi" (君は誰とキスをする わたしそれともわたし), which translates to "Who are you going to kiss? Is it me? Or is it me?".
"The most powerful thing beneath this universe is only my love!" (11:27)
The Japanese line is "Kono uchuu no shita de saikyou na no ha watashi no omoi nomi nan desu yo!" (この宇宙の下で最強なのは私の思いのみなんですよ！). This is referencing a line in the lyrics to "LORD OF THE SPEED", a song sung by RIDER CHIPS featuring Satou Yuuki (佐藤祐基). "LORD OF THE SPEED" is a theme song used in "Kamen Rider Kabuto" (仮面ライダーカブト), a Japanese TV show about a masked super hero that aired from 2006 to 2007.S2 The original line goes, "Kono sora no shita de saikyou na no ha That's my pride jibun nomi" (この空の下で最強なのは That's my pride 自分のみ), which translates to "The most powerful thing beneath this sky, That's my pride, only mine".
There are four references here:
* The game devices that Cthune is holding up are based on the PlayStation Portable, a handheld game console first released by Sony in 2004. Image for reference:
Source of image: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sony-PSP-1000-Body.png
* This is the game shown on the screens of the devices.
The game is "Dagomon Waarudo -Re:Digitize-" (ダゴモンワールド-Re:Digitize-), "Dagomon World -Re:Digitize-". This is referencing "DIGIMON WORLD Re:Digitize" (デジモンワールド リ:デジタイズ), a game released for the PSP in 2012.S1
* The name Dagomon (ダゴモン) is based on Dagomon (ダゴモン), a Digimon that appears in "Digimon Adventure 02" (デジモンアドベンチャー02), an anime that aired from 2000 to 2001.
* Dagomon itself is based on the Cthulhu Mythos. It first appears in episode 13 of "Digimon Adventure 02" and title of this episode is "Dagomon no Yobigoe" (ダゴモンの呼び声), "The Call of Dagomon". This is referencing "Kuturufu no Yobigoe" (クトゥルフの呼び声), "The Call of Cthulhu", a short story written by H. P. Lovecraft and first published in 1928. The appearance of Dagomon is based on Cthulhu and its name is based on Dagon, a sea dwelling creature and a servant of Cthulhu in the Mythos.
"And so, tonight we're going to play the new Dagomon live until morning!" (14:41)
Cthune says the phrase "asa made nama purei" (朝まで生プレイ), which translates to "live play until morning". This is referencing "Asa Made Nama Terebi" (朝まで生テレビ), "Live Television Until Morning", a Japanese late night television program.S2
"Even though these hands aren't for holding my knees... Even though they're for carrying our hearts" (14:53)
The Japanese line is "Hiza wo kakaeru tame no ryoute ja arimasen no ni... Otagai no haato wo noseru tame desu no ni" (膝を抱える為の両手じゃありませんのに・・・お互いのハートを載せる為ですのに). This is referencing a line in the lyrics to "City Hunter ~Ai yo Kienaide~" (City Hunter～愛よ消えないで～), "City Huner ~O Love, Don't Disappear~".S2 "City Hunter ~Ai yo Kiendaide~" is the first opening theme song for "CITY HUNTER" (シティーハンター), an anime series that aired from 1987 to 1988. The line goes, "Hiza wo kakaeru tame no kinou made no ryoute, kyou kara ha otagai no haato wo nosete" (膝をかかえるための昨日までの両手 今日からはおたがいのハートをのせて), which translates to "The hands that until yesterday were for holding my knees, from today onwards are for carrying our hearts".
(15:20 - 17:09)
Nyaruko's lines during this scene are referencing a scene from "Wind -a breath of heart-", a visual novel released in 2002.S1 In the scene, the main heroine, Narukaze Minamo (鳴風みなも), confronts the main character and demands to know what he thinks of her.
"That heat woman" (16:53)
The Japanese line is "Ano hiito no onna" (あのヒートの女). This appears to be referencing "Kamen Raidaa W FOREVER A to Z / Unmei no Gaia Memori" (仮面ライダーW FOREVER AtoZ/運命のガイアメモリ), "Kamen Rider W FOREVER A to Z / The Gaia Memories of Fate", a movie released in 2010.S1 In the movie, one of the main characters, Hidari Shoutarou (左翔太郎), refers to one of the antagonists, Hanehara Reika (羽原レイカ), as "Ano hiito no onna" (あのヒートの女), which translates to "That Heat woman".
"Are you saying it's a sin to love you-topia?" (17:34)
The Japanese line is "ai suru koto ga tsumi da to yuutopia?" (愛することが罪だとユートピア？). The term "yuutopia" (ユートピア) means "utopia", and in this line it is used as a pun on "yu" (言う), which means "to say" in Japanese. The line as a whole is referencing a line said by Kazu Jun in episode 48 of "Kamen Rider W" (仮面ライダーW), a Japanese TV show about a masked super hero that aired from 2009 to 2010.S2 In the series, Kamen Rider W's catch phrase is "Saa, omae no tsumi wo kazoero!" (さあ、お前の罪を数えろ！), which translates to "Now, count up your sins!". In response to this, Jun says, "Hito wo ai suru koto ga... tsumi da to demo..." (人を愛することが・・・罪だとでも・・・), which translates to "Even if loving someone... is a sin...". After saying this line, Jun activates his UTOPIA Gaia Memory which announces "Utopia" (ユートピア).
"I am the beast that shouts love at the heart of space!" (20:59)
The Japanese line is "Watashi ha uchuu no chuushin de ai wo sakebu kedamono desu!" (私は宇宙の中心で愛を叫ぶけだものです！). This is referencing "The Beast that Shouted Love at the Heart of the World", a short story collection written by Harlan Ellison and published in 1969.S1 The Japanese translation of the title is "Sekai no Chuushin de Ai wo Sakenda Kemono" (世界の中心で愛を叫んだけもの).
* On a related note, "Sekai no Chuushin de Ai wo Sakenda Kemono" (世界の中心でアイを叫んだけもの), "The Beast that Shouted 'I' at the Heart of the World", is the title of episode 26 of "Neon Genesis Evangelion" (新世紀エヴァンゲリオン), an anime series that aired from 1995 to 1996.S1
"Ari ari ari arrivederci!" (21:56)
The Japanese line is "Ari ari ari ariivederuchi!" (アリアリアリアリーヴェデルチ！). "Arrivederci" means "goodbye" in Italian. This is referencing the same line said by Bruno Buccellati in chapter 499 in volume 53 of "Jojo no Kimyou na Bouken" (ジョジョの奇妙な冒険), "Jojo's Bizarre Adventure", a manga series written by Araki Hirohiko (荒木飛呂彦) and originally published from 1987 and is currently ongoing.S1 Images for reference:
List of Sources:
S1. Comments on this post
S2. A post at Steman Blog (ステマブログ)
S3. A blog by servitors about Cthulhu Mythos inspired works (クトゥルー／クトゥルフ神話作品発掘記)
Thanks to everyone who contributed! This list wouldn't be nearly as long without you all. See you next episode!
Last updated July 7, 2013